Hydrolysis of Methyl Salicylate and Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid Objectives Many naturally occurring chemicals can be used isolated and used to make other compounds. Methyl salicylate is a naturally occurring compound that we will use to produce salicylic acid, which will then be used to make the wonder drug aspirin acetylsalicylic acid.
Medical use[ edit ] Aspirin is used in the treatment of a number of conditions, including fever, pain, rheumatic feverand inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritispericarditisand Kawasaki disease. Secondary headaches, meaning those caused by another disorder or trauma, should be promptly treated by a medical provider.
Among primary headaches, the International Classification of Headache Disorders distinguishes between tension headache the most commonmigraine, and cluster headache. Aspirin or other over-the-counter analgesics are widely recognized as effective for the treatment of tension headache.
It is most effective at stopping migraines when they are first beginning. However, the study population were at relatively higher risk than those who had never had a heart attack or stroke. Some studies recommend aspirin on a case-by-case basis,   while others have suggested the risks of other events, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, were enough to outweigh any potential benefit, and recommended against using aspirin for primary prevention entirely.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality guideline recommends that aspirin be taken indefinitely.
This is called dual antiplatelet therapy DAPT. United States and European Union guidelines disagree somewhat about how long, and for what indications this combined therapy should be continued after surgery. Cancer prevention[ edit ] Aspirin is thought to reduce the overall risk of both getting cancer and dying from cancer.
The therapy often lasts for one to two weeks, and is rarely indicated for longer periods. After fever and pain have subsided, the aspirin is no longer necessary, since it does not decrease the incidence of heart complications and residual rheumatic heart disease.
Smaller doses are based on these standards, e. In general, for adults, doses are taken four times a day for fever or arthritis,  with doses near the maximal daily dose used historically for the treatment of rheumatic fever.
Owing to its effect on the stomach lining, manufacturers recommend people with peptic ulcersmild diabetesor gastritis seek medical advice before using aspirin.
In addition to enteric coating, "buffering" is the other main method companies have used to try to mitigate the problem of gastrointestinal bleeding. Buffering agents are intended to work by preventing the aspirin from concentrating in the walls of the stomach, although the benefits of buffered aspirin are disputed.
Almost any buffering agent used in antacids can be used; Bufferin, for example, uses magnesium oxide.
Other preparations use calcium carbonate. Taking equal doses of vitamin C and aspirin may decrease the amount of stomach damage that occurs compared to taking aspirin alone.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Salicylates were detectable in Food and Drug Administration now recommends aspirin or aspirin-containing products should not be given to anyone under the age of 12 who has a fever,  and the UK National Health Service recommends children who are under 16 years of age should not take aspirin, unless it is on the advice of a doctor.
The reaction is caused by salicylate intolerance and is not a true allergybut rather an inability to metabolize even small amounts of aspirin, resulting in an overdose.
In one study, angioedema appeared one to six hours after ingesting aspirin in some of the people.
However, when the aspirin was taken alone, it did not cause angioedema in these people; the aspirin had been taken in combination with another NSAID-induced drug when angioedema appeared. In one study, 30 of people having elective surgery required reoperations to control bleeding.Aspirin is the most widely used over-the-counter drug in the world.
The average tablet contains about milligrams of the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid with an inert binding material such as starch. Acetylsalicylic acid binds to and acetylates serine residues in cyclooxygenases, resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, platelet aggregation, and inflammation.
This agent exhibits analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant properties. The synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid (2) from salicylic acid (1) (Scheme 1) proceeded through the Fischer esterification mechanism, which is an acid-catalyzed, ester-forming, condensation reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid.
metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, is an essential part of the human metabolism3. Salicylic acid is an integral part of pain management and was often used by ancient cultures, such as the Native Americans, .
Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin) Synthesis Telow, AJV Sumicad, CJ, Tavanlar, EMMT, Chem , Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines Los Baños I.
Introduction Organic synthesis is the process where a desired organic compound is constructed or prepared from commercially available materials. Aspirin Synthesis and Analysis Revised: 12/13/14 reaction complex.
As a catalyst, H+ is regenerated (not consumed) by the end of the reaction. As the reaction proceeds, the solid salicylic acid disappears and the acetylsalicylic acid product.