Aerospace medicine deals with medical problems related to flying and space travel. Addiction medicine deals with the treatment of addiction.
History[ edit ] In FebruaryMark Hughes began selling the original Herbalife weight management product from the trunk of his car. Hughes often stated that the genesis of his product and program stemmed from the weight loss concerns of his mother Joanne, whose premature death he attributed to an eating disorder and an unhealthy approach to weight loss.
He structured his company using a direct-sellingmultilevel marketing model. As a result of the complaints, the company modified its product claims and reformulated the product.
The company suffered as a result of the lawsuit and was forced to lay off nearly employees by May Inthe company underwent a secondary offering of five million shares. Inthe company had expanded its reach to 32 countries, with international sales accounting for more than half of total sales.
The company was sued in civil court by two former distributors in for withholding earned income. While the board approved the buyout offer, shareholders of the company filed a suit against the firm because they believed the share price they were offered was unfair.
Hughes eventually abandoned his attempt to buy the company and settled the suit with shareholders. Federal Trade Commission and the state of Illinois.
The company also announced that its shareholders had approved a two-for-one stock split. Some products are vegetarian, kosherallergen free,  or halal. Dto a private U.
A study of the cases funded by the Israeli Ministry of Health concluded that a causative relationship  is suggested by the evidence, which included the temporal association between exposure to Herbalife products and the development of liver injury, the negative evaluation of other potential causes of liver injury, the normalization of liver function when Herbalife products were discontinued, and the return of liver injury symptoms in three patients who resumed using Herbalife products after recovery.
Herbalife withdrew one product, which was only marketed in Israel, but not all of the Israeli patients had consumed this specific Herbalife product.
The Israeli Ministry of Health advises individuals with compromised liver function to avoid dietary supplements. Hospitals in Israel, Spain, Switzerland, Iceland, Argentina, and the United States had reported liver damage in a number of patients, some of whom had used Herbalife products.
After reviewing cases implicating Herbalife products in Spain, Switzerland, Israel, Finland, France, Italy, Iceland and Portugal, the member scientific panel issued a report concluding: The panel attributed the cases to metabolic changes from overzealous and unsupervised dieting.
A July peer-reviewed study published in the World Journal of Hepatology reexamined known cases of hepatoxicity that had previously been linked to consumption of Herbalife products and concluded that using "the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale, causality was probable in 1 case, unlikely and excluded in the other cases.
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